dotmatcher

 

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Function

Draw a threshold dotplot of two sequences

Description

dotmatcher generates a dotplot from two input sequences. The dotplot is an intuitive graphical representation of the regions of similarity between two sequences. All positions from the first input sequence are compared with all positions from the second input sequence using a specified substitution matrix. The two sequences are the axes of the rectangular dotplot. Wherever there is "similarity" between a position from each sequence a dot is plotted. The threshold conditions for "similarity" are defined by the user.

Algorithm

All positions from the first input sequence are compared with all positions from the second input sequence and scored, using the specified substitution matrix. This produces a matrix of scores from which local regions of similarity (corresponding to diagonals in the dotplot) are identified. A window of user-specified length is moved along all possible diagonals. Each position in the window corresponds to a pair-wise score from the scoring matrix. The score for the entire window is the sum of the scores for individual positions within it. If the window score is above the user-defined threshold, then a line is plotted on the dotplot corresponding to the window.

Usage

Here is a sample session with dotmatcher


% dotmatcher tsw:hba_human tsw:hbb_human -graph cps 
Draw a threshold dotplot of two sequences

Created dotmatcher.ps

Go to the input files for this example
Go to the output files for this example

Command line arguments

   Standard (Mandatory) qualifiers (* if not always prompted):
  [-asequence]         sequence   Sequence filename and optional format, or
                                  reference (input USA)
  [-bsequence]         sequence   Sequence filename and optional format, or
                                  reference (input USA)
*  -graph              graph      [$EMBOSS_GRAPHICS value, or x11] Graph type
                                  (ps, hpgl, hp7470, hp7580, meta, cps, x11,
                                  tekt, tek, none, data, das, xterm, png, gif)
*  -xygraph            xygraph    [$EMBOSS_GRAPHICS value, or x11] Graph type
                                  (ps, hpgl, hp7470, hp7580, meta, cps, x11,
                                  tekt, tek, none, data, das, xterm, png, gif)

   Additional (Optional) qualifiers:
   -matrixfile         matrix     [EBLOSUM62 for protein, EDNAFULL for DNA]
                                  This is the scoring matrix file used when
                                  comparing sequences. By default it is the
                                  file 'EBLOSUM62' (for proteins) or the file
                                  'EDNAFULL' (for nucleic sequences). These
                                  files are found in the 'data' directory of
                                  the EMBOSS installation.
   -windowsize         integer    [10] Window size over which to test
                                  threshhold (Integer 3 or more)
   -threshold          integer    [23] Threshold (Integer 0 or more)

   Advanced (Unprompted) qualifiers:
   -stretch            toggle     [N] Display a non-proportional graph

   Associated qualifiers:

   "-asequence" associated qualifiers
   -sbegin1            integer    Start of the sequence to be used
   -send1              integer    End of the sequence to be used
   -sreverse1          boolean    Reverse (if DNA)
   -sask1              boolean    Ask for begin/end/reverse
   -snucleotide1       boolean    Sequence is nucleotide
   -sprotein1          boolean    Sequence is protein
   -slower1            boolean    Make lower case
   -supper1            boolean    Make upper case
   -sformat1           string     Input sequence format
   -sdbname1           string     Database name
   -sid1               string     Entryname
   -ufo1               string     UFO features
   -fformat1           string     Features format
   -fopenfile1         string     Features file name

   "-bsequence" associated qualifiers
   -sbegin2            integer    Start of the sequence to be used
   -send2              integer    End of the sequence to be used
   -sreverse2          boolean    Reverse (if DNA)
   -sask2              boolean    Ask for begin/end/reverse
   -snucleotide2       boolean    Sequence is nucleotide
   -sprotein2          boolean    Sequence is protein
   -slower2            boolean    Make lower case
   -supper2            boolean    Make upper case
   -sformat2           string     Input sequence format
   -sdbname2           string     Database name
   -sid2               string     Entryname
   -ufo2               string     UFO features
   -fformat2           string     Features format
   -fopenfile2         string     Features file name

   "-graph" associated qualifiers
   -gprompt            boolean    Graph prompting
   -gdesc              string     Graph description
   -gtitle             string     Graph title
   -gsubtitle          string     Graph subtitle
   -gxtitle            string     Graph x axis title
   -gytitle            string     Graph y axis title
   -goutfile           string     Output file for non interactive displays
   -gdirectory         string     Output directory

   "-xygraph" associated qualifiers
   -gprompt            boolean    Graph prompting
   -gdesc              string     Graph description
   -gtitle             string     Graph title
   -gsubtitle          string     Graph subtitle
   -gxtitle            string     Graph x axis title
   -gytitle            string     Graph y axis title
   -goutfile           string     Output file for non interactive displays
   -gdirectory         string     Output directory

   General qualifiers:
   -auto               boolean    Turn off prompts
   -stdout             boolean    Write first file to standard output
   -filter             boolean    Read first file from standard input, write
                                  first file to standard output
   -options            boolean    Prompt for standard and additional values
   -debug              boolean    Write debug output to program.dbg
   -verbose            boolean    Report some/full command line options
   -help               boolean    Report command line options. More
                                  information on associated and general
                                  qualifiers can be found with -help -verbose
   -warning            boolean    Report warnings
   -error              boolean    Report errors
   -fatal              boolean    Report fatal errors
   -die                boolean    Report dying program messages

Standard (Mandatory) qualifiers Allowed values Default
[-asequence]
(Parameter 1)
Sequence filename and optional format, or reference (input USA) Readable sequence Required
[-bsequence]
(Parameter 2)
Sequence filename and optional format, or reference (input USA) Readable sequence Required
-graph Graph type EMBOSS has a list of known devices, including ps, hpgl, hp7470, hp7580, meta, cps, x11, tekt, tek, none, data, das, xterm, png, gif EMBOSS_GRAPHICS value, or x11
-xygraph Graph type EMBOSS has a list of known devices, including ps, hpgl, hp7470, hp7580, meta, cps, x11, tekt, tek, none, data, das, xterm, png, gif EMBOSS_GRAPHICS value, or x11
Additional (Optional) qualifiers Allowed values Default
-matrixfile This is the scoring matrix file used when comparing sequences. By default it is the file 'EBLOSUM62' (for proteins) or the file 'EDNAFULL' (for nucleic sequences). These files are found in the 'data' directory of the EMBOSS installation. Comparison matrix file in EMBOSS data path EBLOSUM62 for protein
EDNAFULL for DNA
-windowsize Window size over which to test threshhold Integer 3 or more 10
-threshold Threshold Integer 0 or more 23
Advanced (Unprompted) qualifiers Allowed values Default
-stretch Display a non-proportional graph Toggle value Yes/No No

Input file format

Any 2 sequence USAs of the same type (DNA or protein).

Input files for usage example

'tsw:hba_human' is a sequence entry in the example protein database 'tsw'

Database entry: tsw:hba_human

ID   HBA_HUMAN               Reviewed;         142 AA.
AC   P69905; P01922; Q1HDT5; Q3MIF5; Q53F97; Q96KF1; Q9NYR7; Q9UCM0;
DT   21-JUL-1986, integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.
DT   23-JAN-2007, sequence version 2.
DT   16-JUN-2009, entry version 73.
DE   RecName: Full=Hemoglobin subunit alpha;
DE   AltName: Full=Hemoglobin alpha chain;
DE   AltName: Full=Alpha-globin;
GN   Name=HBA1;
GN   and
GN   Name=HBA2;
OS   Homo sapiens (Human).
OC   Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi;
OC   Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini;
OC   Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo.
OX   NCBI_TaxID=9606;
RN   [1]
RP   NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA] (HBA1).
RX   MEDLINE=81088339; PubMed=7448866; DOI=10.1016/0092-8674(80)90347-5;
RA   Michelson A.M., Orkin S.H.;
RT   "The 3' untranslated regions of the duplicated human alpha-globin
RT   genes are unexpectedly divergent.";
RL   Cell 22:371-377(1980).
RN   [2]
RP   NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (HBA2).
RX   MEDLINE=80137531; PubMed=6244294;
RA   Wilson J.T., Wilson L.B., Reddy V.B., Cavallesco C., Ghosh P.K.,
RA   Deriel J.K., Forget B.G., Weissman S.M.;
RT   "Nucleotide sequence of the coding portion of human alpha globin
RT   messenger RNA.";
RL   J. Biol. Chem. 255:2807-2815(1980).
RN   [3]
RP   NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA] (HBA2).
RX   MEDLINE=81175088; PubMed=6452630; DOI=10.1073/pnas.77.12.7054;
RA   Liebhaber S.A., Goossens M.J., Kan Y.W.;
RT   "Cloning and complete nucleotide sequence of human 5'-alpha-globin
RT   gene.";
RL   Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77:7054-7058(1980).
RN   [4]
RP   NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
RX   PubMed=6946451; DOI=10.1073/pnas.78.8.5041;
RA   Orkin S.H., Goff S.C., Hechtman R.L.;
RT   "Mutation in an intervening sequence splice junction in man.";
RL   Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 78:5041-5045(1981).
RN   [5]
RP   NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA], AND VARIANT LYS-32.
RX   MEDLINE=21303311; PubMed=11410421;
RA   Zhao Y., Xu X.;
RT   "Alpha2(CD31 AGG-->AAG, Arg-->Lys) causing non-deletional alpha-
RT   thalassemia in a Chinese family with HbH disease.";


  [Part of this file has been deleted for brevity]

FT                                /FTId=VAR_002841.
FT   VARIANT     132    132       S -> P (in Questembert; highly unstable;
FT                                causes alpha-thalassemia).
FT                                /FTId=VAR_002843.
FT   VARIANT     134    134       S -> R (in Val de Marne; O(2) affinity
FT                                up).
FT                                /FTId=VAR_002844.
FT   VARIANT     136    136       V -> E (in Pavie).
FT                                /FTId=VAR_002845.
FT   VARIANT     137    137       L -> M (in Chicago).
FT                                /FTId=VAR_002846.
FT   VARIANT     137    137       L -> P (in Bibba; unstable; causes alpha-
FT                                thalassemia).
FT                                /FTId=VAR_002847.
FT   VARIANT     137    137       L -> R (in Toyama).
FT                                /FTId=VAR_035242.
FT   VARIANT     139    139       S -> P (in Attleboro; O(2) affinity up).
FT                                /FTId=VAR_002848.
FT   VARIANT     140    140       K -> E (in Hanamaki; O(2) affinity up).
FT                                /FTId=VAR_002849.
FT   VARIANT     140    140       K -> T (in Tokoname; O(2) affinity up).
FT                                /FTId=VAR_002850.
FT   VARIANT     141    141       Y -> H (in Rouen/Ethiopia; O(2) affinity
FT                                up).
FT                                /FTId=VAR_002851.
FT   VARIANT     142    142       R -> C (in Nunobiki; O(2) affinity up).
FT                                /FTId=VAR_002852.
FT   VARIANT     142    142       R -> H (in Suresnes; O(2) affinity up).
FT                                /FTId=VAR_002854.
FT   VARIANT     142    142       R -> L (in Legnano; O(2) affinity up).
FT                                /FTId=VAR_002853.
FT   VARIANT     142    142       R -> P (in Singapore).
FT                                /FTId=VAR_002855.
FT   CONFLICT     10     10       N -> H (in Ref. 13; BAD97112).
FT   HELIX         5     16
FT   HELIX        17     21
FT   HELIX        22     36
FT   HELIX        38     43
FT   HELIX        54     72
FT   HELIX        74     76
FT   HELIX        77     80
FT   HELIX        82     90
FT   HELIX        97    113
FT   TURN        115    117
FT   HELIX       120    137
FT   TURN        138    140
SQ   SEQUENCE   142 AA;  15258 MW;  15E13666573BBBAE CRC64;
     MVLSPADKTN VKAAWGKVGA HAGEYGAEAL ERMFLSFPTT KTYFPHFDLS HGSAQVKGHG
     KKVADALTNA VAHVDDMPNA LSALSDLHAH KLRVDPVNFK LLSHCLLVTL AAHLPAEFTP
     AVHASLDKFL ASVSTVLTSK YR
//

Database entry: tsw:hbb_human

ID   HBB_HUMAN               Reviewed;         147 AA.
AC   P68871; A4GX73; B2ZUE0; P02023; Q13852; Q14481; Q14510; Q45KT0;
AC   Q549N7; Q6FI08; Q6R7N2; Q8IZI1; Q9BX96; Q9UCD6; Q9UCP8; Q9UCP9;
DT   21-JUL-1986, integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.
DT   23-JAN-2007, sequence version 2.
DT   16-JUN-2009, entry version 76.
DE   RecName: Full=Hemoglobin subunit beta;
DE   AltName: Full=Hemoglobin beta chain;
DE   AltName: Full=Beta-globin;
DE   Contains:
DE     RecName: Full=LVV-hemorphin-7;
GN   Name=HBB;
OS   Homo sapiens (Human).
OC   Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi;
OC   Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini;
OC   Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo.
OX   NCBI_TaxID=9606;
RN   [1]
RP   NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
RX   MEDLINE=77126403; PubMed=1019344;
RA   Marotta C., Forget B., Cohen-Solal M., Weissman S.M.;
RT   "Nucleotide sequence analysis of coding and noncoding regions of human
RT   beta-globin mRNA.";
RL   Prog. Nucleic Acid Res. Mol. Biol. 19:165-175(1976).
RN   [2]
RP   NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
RX   MEDLINE=81064667; PubMed=6254664; DOI=10.1016/0092-8674(80)90428-6;
RA   Lawn R.M., Efstratiadis A., O'Connell C., Maniatis T.;
RT   "The nucleotide sequence of the human beta-globin gene.";
RL   Cell 21:647-651(1980).
RN   [3]
RP   NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA], AND VARIANT LYS-7.
RX   PubMed=16175509; DOI=10.1086/491748;
RA   Wood E.T., Stover D.A., Slatkin M., Nachman M.W., Hammer M.F.;
RT   "The beta-globin recombinational hotspot reduces the effects of strong
RT   selection around HbC, a recently arisen mutation providing resistance
RT   to malaria.";
RL   Am. J. Hum. Genet. 77:637-642(2005).
RN   [4]
RP   NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
RA   Lu L., Hu Z.H., Du C.S., Fu Y.S.;
RT   "DNA sequence of the human beta-globin gene isolated from a healthy
RT   Chinese.";
RL   Submitted (JUN-1997) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases.
RN   [5]
RP   NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA], AND VARIANT ARG-113.
RA   Cabeda J.M., Correia C., Estevinho A., Cardoso C., Amorim M.L.,
RA   Cleto E., Vale L., Coimbra E., Pinho L., Justica B.;
RT   "Unexpected patterns of globin mutations in thalassemia patients from
RT   north of Portugal.";


  [Part of this file has been deleted for brevity]

FT   VARIANT     141    141       A -> V (in Puttelange; polycythemia; O(2)
FT                                affinity up).
FT                                /FTId=VAR_003082.
FT   VARIANT     142    142       L -> R (in Olmsted; unstable).
FT                                /FTId=VAR_003083.
FT   VARIANT     143    143       A -> D (in Ohio; O(2) affinity up).
FT                                /FTId=VAR_003084.
FT   VARIANT     144    144       H -> D (in Rancho Mirage).
FT                                /FTId=VAR_003085.
FT   VARIANT     144    144       H -> P (in Syracuse; O(2) affinity up).
FT                                /FTId=VAR_003087.
FT   VARIANT     144    144       H -> Q (in Little Rock; O(2) affinity
FT                                up).
FT                                /FTId=VAR_003086.
FT   VARIANT     144    144       H -> R (in Abruzzo; O(2) affinity up).
FT                                /FTId=VAR_003088.
FT   VARIANT     145    145       K -> E (in Mito; O(2) affinity up).
FT                                /FTId=VAR_003089.
FT   VARIANT     146    146       Y -> C (in Rainier; O(2) affinity up).
FT                                /FTId=VAR_003090.
FT   VARIANT     146    146       Y -> H (in Bethesda; O(2) affinity up).
FT                                /FTId=VAR_003091.
FT   VARIANT     147    147       H -> D (in Hiroshima; O(2) affinity up).
FT                                /FTId=VAR_003092.
FT   VARIANT     147    147       H -> L (in Cowtown; O(2) affinity up).
FT                                /FTId=VAR_003093.
FT   VARIANT     147    147       H -> P (in York; O(2) affinity up).
FT                                /FTId=VAR_003094.
FT   VARIANT     147    147       H -> Q (in Kodaira; O(2) affinity up).
FT                                /FTId=VAR_003095.
FT   CONFLICT     26     26       Missing (in Ref. 15; ACD39349).
FT   CONFLICT     42     42       F -> L (in Ref. 13; AAR96398).
FT   HELIX         6     16
FT   TURN         21     23
FT   HELIX        24     35
FT   HELIX        37     42
FT   HELIX        44     46
FT   HELIX        52     57
FT   HELIX        59     77
FT   TURN         78     80
FT   HELIX        82     94
FT   TURN         95     97
FT   HELIX       102    119
FT   HELIX       120    122
FT   HELIX       125    142
FT   HELIX       144    146
SQ   SEQUENCE   147 AA;  15998 MW;  A31F6D621C6556A1 CRC64;
     MVHLTPEEKS AVTALWGKVN VDEVGGEALG RLLVVYPWTQ RFFESFGDLS TPDAVMGNPK
     VKAHGKKVLG AFSDGLAHLD NLKGTFATLS ELHCDKLHVD PENFRLLGNV LVCVLAHHFG
     KEFTPPVQAA YQKVVAGVAN ALAHKYH
//

Output file format

An image is output to the requested graphics device.

Output files for usage example

Graphics File: dotmatcher.ps

[dotmatcher results]

Data files

It uses the specified matrix substitution file to compare the two sequences.

For protein sequences EBLOSUM62 is used for the substitution matrix. For nucleotide sequence, EDNAFULL is used. Others can be specified.

EMBOSS data files are distributed with the application and stored in the standard EMBOSS data directory, which is defined by the EMBOSS environment variable EMBOSS_DATA.

To see the available EMBOSS data files, run:

% embossdata -showall

To fetch one of the data files (for example 'Exxx.dat') into your current directory for you to inspect or modify, run:


% embossdata -fetch -file Exxx.dat

Users can provide their own data files in their own directories. Project specific files can be put in the current directory, or for tidier directory listings in a subdirectory called ".embossdata". Files for all EMBOSS runs can be put in the user's home directory, or again in a subdirectory called ".embossdata".

The directories are searched in the following order:

Notes

Where the two sequences have substantial regions of similarity, the dots line up to form diagonal lines. It is possible to see at a glance such local regions of similarity. It is also easy to see other features such as repeats (which form parallel diagonal lines), and insertions or deletions (which form breaks or discontinuities in the diagonal lines).

References

None.

Warnings

None.

Diagnostic Error Messages

None.

Exit status

It always exits with status 0.

Known bugs

None.

See also

Program name Description
dotpath Draw a non-overlapping wordmatch dotplot of two sequences
dottup Displays a wordmatch dotplot of two sequences
polydot Draw dotplots for all-against-all comparison of a sequence set
dottup, by comparison, has no threshold, using a wordmatch-style method. dottup is less sensitive, but substantially faster than dotmatcher.

Author(s)

Ian Longden (il © sanger.ac.uk)
Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, CB10 1SA, UK.

History

Completed 1st June 1999.

Target users

This program is intended to be used by everyone and everything, from naive users to embedded scripts.

Comments

None